Washington District-Wide

Elementary School

What is an Articulation Disorder?
Articulation Disorders

An articulation disorder may be diagnosed when a child has difficulty producing phonemes, or speech sounds, correctly. When classifying a sound, speech pathologists refer to the manner of articulation, the place of articulation, and voicing. A speech sound disorder may include one or more errors of place, manner, or voicing of the speech sound.

Different types of articulation disorders include:
omissions: certain sounds are deleted, often at the ends of words; entire syllables or classes of sounds may be deleted; ex: fi for fish

substitutions: one sound is substituted for another, often with similar places or manners or articulation; ex: fith for fish

distortions: sounds are changed slightly by what may seem like the addition of noise, or a change in voicing; ex: filsh for fish

additions: an extra sound is added to one already produced correctly; often occurs at the ends of words; may include changes in voicing; ex: fisha for fish

The phonemes that present the greatest challenge for children include:
/l/ as in pull
/r/ as in mirror
("sh") as in shut
("ch") as in church
("j") as in fudge
/z/ as in zoo
("zh") as in measure
("th") as in math
("th") as in this
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